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For France, American Vines Still Mean Sour Grapes

BEAUMONT, France — The vines were once demonized for causing madness and blindness, and had been banned decades ago. The French authorities …

For France, American Vines Still Mean Sour Grapes

BEAUMONT, France — The vines were once demonized for causing madness and blindness, and had been banned decades ago. The French authorities, brandishing money and sanctions, nearly wiped them out.

But there they were. On a hillside off a winding mountain road in a lost corner of southern France, the forbidden crop was thriving. Early one recent evening, Hervé Garnier inspected his field with relief.

In a year when an April frost and disease have decimated France’s overall wine production, Mr. Garnier’s grapes — an American hybrid variety named jacquez, banned by the French government since 1934 — were already turning red. Barring an early-autumn cold snap, all was on track for a new vintage.

“There’s really no reason for its prohibition,” Mr. Garnier said. “Prohibited? I’d like to understand why, especially when you see the prohibition rests on nothing.”

Mr. Garnier is one of the last stragglers in a long-running struggle against the French wine establishment and its allies in Paris. The French government has tried to rip the jacquez and five other American vine varieties out of French soil for the past 87 years, arguing that they are bad for human physical and mental health — andproduce bad wine.

Jacquez vines at Michel Arnaud’s farm in the village of Saint-Mélany in the Ardèche region of France. The American hybrid variety has been banned in France since 1934.Credit…Andrea Mantovani for The New York Times

But in recent years, the hardiness of the American varieties has given a lift to guerrilla winemakers like him, as climate change wreaks havoc on vineyards across Europe and natural wines made without the use of pesticides have grown in popularity.

Despite France’s pledge in 2008 to halve the use of pesticides, it has continued to rise in the past decade. Vineyards occupied just over 4 percent of France’s agricultural area but used 15 percent of all pesticides nationwide in 2019, according to the Agriculture Ministry.

“These vines ensure bountiful harvests, without irrigation, without fertilizers and without treatment,” said Christian Sunt, a member of Forgotten Fruits, a group fighting for the legalization of the American grapes. Showing off forbidden vines, including the clinton and isabelle varieties, on a property in the southern Cévennes region, near the town of Anduze, he added, “These vines are ideal for making natural wine.”

American grapes have long played a central role in the tumultuous, and emotional, history of wine between France and the United States — alternately threatening French production, and reviving it.

A placard reading, “Tear out your prohibited vines,” which was distributed in France in 1956, is displayed in the office of the Memory of the Vine association.Credit…Andrea Mantovani for The New York Times

It all started in the mid-1800s when vines native to the United States were brought over to Europe, with a piggybacking louse known as phylloxera. While the American vines were resistant to the pest, their European counterparts did not stand a chance. The ravenous lice attacked their roots, choking off the flow of nutrients to the rest of the plant — and causing the biggest crisis in the history of French wine.

The lice destroyed millions of acres, shut down vineyards and sent jobless French to Algeria, a French colony.

After a quarter-century of helplessly watching the collapse of Europe’s traditional wine culture, the wine world’s best minds had an epiphany. The cure was in the poison: the American vines.

Some vintners grafted the European vines onto the resistant American rootstocks. Others crossbred American and European vines, producing what became known as the American hybrids, like the jacquez.

Faced with seeming extinction, France’s wine industry bounced back.

Christian Sunt examining clinton vines at a nursery near the town of Anduze.Credit…Andrea Mantovani for The New York Times
Buying wine in the village of Saint-Mélany.Credit…Andrea Mantovani for The New York Times

“That left an impression to this day,” said Thierry Lacombe, an ampelographer, or vine expert, who teaches at Montpellier SupAgro, a French university specializing in agriculture. “It wasn’t the only time that the Americans, our American friends, came to save the French.”

The French wine world split between supporters of grafting and hybrid grapes.

The grafters kept producing wine from pinot, merlot, cabernet sauvignon and other classic European grapes. The American hybrids, they often said, smelled like fox urine.

Still, the American hybrids thrived all over France. Sturdier and easier to grow, they were especially popular in rural areas like the Cévennes. Families planted them on hillsides where other crops were impossible to grow. They let them grow on top of arbors, cultivating potatoes underneath, as a way to make productive every inch of land. Villagers harvested and made wine together, using a common cellar.

If pinot noir is part of Burgundy’s identity, the jacquez became part of the folklore of the northern Cévennes, including the village of Beaumont.

And in the southern Cévennes, the clinton (pronounced clain-ton) reigned.

A vineyard in the village of Beaumont. In the Cévennes, families planted the American hybrids on hillsides where other crops could not grow.Credit…Andrea Mantovani for The New York Times

“Here, if you serve a glass of clinton at any bar, people will pounce on it,” said Mr. Sunt, 70, a retired forest ranger. “If the clinton became legal again, I can tell you that if a winemaker wrote clinton on his bottle, he’d sell 10 times more than if he wrote syrah or cabernet sauvignon.”

Today, the American varieties make up only a tiny percentage of all French wine. But with grafting and the hybrids, production boomed across the land in the early part of last century. Algeria also become a major wine exporter to metropolitan France.

With France awash in wine, lawmakers urgently addressed the problem around Christmas in 1934. To reduce overproduction, they outlawed the six American vines — including hybrids like the jacquez and pure American grapes like the isabelle — mainly on the grounds that they produced poor wine. Production for private consumption would be tolerated, but not for commercial sale.

The government had planned to follow up with bans on other hybrids but stopped because of the backlash to the initial ban, Mr. Lacombe said. Then the war provided another reprieve.

Clinton vines on the wall of a house in Beaumont.Credit…Andrea Mantovani for The New York Times

It was only in the 1950s — when hybrids were still cultivated on a third of all French vineyards — that the government really began cracking down on the six forbidden grapes, Mr. Lacombe said. It offered incentives to rip out the offending vines, then threatened growers with fines.

It then condemned the American grapes as harmful to body and sanity with arguments “not completely honest to try to quell a situation that was slipping away from the government,” Mr. Lacombe said.

“In fact, the present defenders of these vines are right in underlining all the historical and government inconsistencies,” he added.

The clinton and jacquez might have met a quiet death if not for a back-to-the-land movement that, starting in the 1970s, brought people like Mr. Garnier to the Cévennes.

Originally from northeastern France, Mr. Garnier, now 68, was once a longhaired high school student who traveled to see Jimi Hendrix, The Who and Janis Joplin perform in concert. Half a century later, he cheerfully recalls how he avoided mandatory military service after only seven hours on a base during which he asked to see a psychologist, refused to eat with others and was generally annoying.

“There’s really no reason for its prohibition,” Hervé Garnier said, referring to his jacquez vines. “Prohibited? I’d like to understand why, especially when you see the prohibition rests on nothing.”Credit…Andrea Mantovani for The New York Times

A week after his discharge, aimless hitchhiking brought him in 1973 to the village of Beaumont in the Cévennes where he immediately decided to buy an abandoned property — paying it off mostly by repairing roofs in the region and elsewhere.

Some years later, he got into winemaking almost by accident. Two elderly brothers asked him to harvest their jacquez grapes in return for half of the wine production. He learned the history of the forbidden vines and eventually bought the brothers’ vineyards.

Today, he makes 3,400 bottles a year of his deeply colored, fruity “Cuvée des vignes d’antan,” or wine from vines of yesteryear. He got around the ban by creating a cultural, noncommercial association, “Memory of the Vine.” A membership fee of 10 euros, or about $12, yields a bottle.

With the growing threat of climate change and the backlash against the use of pesticides, Mr. Garnier is hoping that the forbidden grapes will be legalized and that France’s wine industry will open up to a new generation of hybrids — as Germany, Switzerland and other Europeans nations already have.

“France is a great wine country,” he said. “To remain one, we have to open up. We can’t get stuck on what we already know.”

A restaurant in the village of Beaumont where Mr. Garnier offers his wine produced produced with the jacquez grape variety.Credit…Andrea Mantovani for The New York Times

Léontine Gallois contributed reporting.

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escortBahçelievler Escortbostancı escortBağdat Caddesi Escortataşehir escortBağcılar Escortcevizli escortatalar escortmaltepe escortAvrupa Yakası Escortkartal escortmaltepe escortAvcılar EscortAtaşehir Escortümraniye escortAnkara escortUlus escortTunalı escortTandoğan escortSıhhiye escortRus escortMamak escortMamak escortGölbaşı escortcialiscinsel sağlık ürünleribayan azdırıcı fiyatkadın azdırıcı damlasertleştirici ilaçlarcialis fiyatviagra fiyatpenis büyütücükamagra jelgeciktirici spreycialis 20 mgcialis 100 mgviagra 30 luen iyi penis sertleştirici ilaçsertleştirici haplarhasta yataklarıkent switch fiyatKeno Club Sigaraparliament aqua bluemarlboro double fusionGauloises Sigarakent switchdjarum blackLeader SigaraAnadolu yakası escortAtaşehir escortBostancı escortErenköy Escortavrupa yakası escortAtaköy EscortAvcılar EscortBahçeşehir Escortözel escortlaranal escortçıtır escortelit escortAnadolu Yakası escortAtaşehir escortbağdat caddesi escortBostancı escortGöztepe Escortİstanbul 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EscortÜmraniye Escortbağdat caddesi escortgöztepe escortistanbul escortkartal escortkurtköy escortmaltepe escortpendik escorttuzla escortüsküdar escortataköy escortavcılar escort bayanavrupa yakası escortbahçeşehir escortbakırköy escortbeşiktaş escortbeylikdüzü escorterenköy escortetiler escortgöztepe escortikitelli escortkartal escortkurtköy escortmaltepe escortmecidiyeköy escortpendik escortşirinevler escortşişli escortsoğanlık escortataşehir escortkaynarca escortümraniye escortgebze escorttuzla escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortsex hikayeleriadana escortadıyaman escortafyon escortağrı escortaksaray escortamasya escortankara escortantalya escortantep escortardahan escortartvin escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortbartın escortbatman escortbayburt escortbilecik escortbingol escortbitlis escortbolu escortburdur escortbursa escortçanakkale escortçankırı escortçorum escortdenizli escortdiyarbakır escortdüzce escortedirne escortelazığ escorterzincan escorterzurum escorteskişehir escortgiresun escortgümüşhane escorthakkari escorthatay escortığdır escortısparta escortistanbul escortizmir escortizmit escortkarabük escortkaraman escortkars escortkastamonu escortkayseri escortkıbrıs escortkilis escortkırıkkale escortkırklareli escortkırşehir escortkocaeli escortkonya escortkütahya escortmalatya escortmanisa escortmaraş escortmardin escortmersin escortmuğla escortmuş escortnevşehir escortniğde escortordu escortosmaniye escortrize escortsakarya escortsamsun escortsiirt escortsinop escortşırnak escortsivas escorttekirdağ escorttokat escorttrabzon escorttunceli escortzonguldak escorturfa escortuşak escortvan escortyalova escortyozgat escorterkeklerde sertleşmeye iyi gelen ilaçlarsertleştirici hap eczane fiyatlarıvega 100 mg hapfuck googledolandırıcı hesap satışıbacklink alToscanello Blu Anice AnasonToscanello CappuccinoToscanello Cioccolato ÇikolataToscanello GrappaToscanello LimoncelloToscanello MacchiatoToscanello Rosso CaffeToscanello RubinoToscanello VanilyaToscanello PuroToscanello Cappuccino Puroweb postegropostegro girişAvrupa yakası escortAksaray escortAtaköy escortAtaşehir escortAvcılar escortBahçelievler escortBahçeşehir escortBakırköy escortBaşakşehir escortBeşiktaş escortBeylikdüzü escortBostancı escortBüyükçekmece escortEsenyurt escortEtiler escortFatih escortHalkalı escortKadıköy escortKartal escortKüçükçekmece escortMaltepe escortMecidiyeköy escortMerter escortPendik escortRus escortŞirinevler escortŞişli escortTaksim escortTopkapı escortümraniye escortZeytinburnu escortgaziantep escortalanya escorttekirdağ escortşanlıurfa escortşanlıurfa escortsamsun escortbolu escortbodrum escortbeylikdüzü escortyozgat escortyalova escortvan escortuşak escorturfa escorttrabzon escorttokat escorttokat escortsivas escorturfa escortsakarya escortsakarya escortrize escortniğde escortniğde escortmuğla escortmuğla escortmarmaris escortmardin escortmardin escortmaraş escortmanisa escortmanisa escortkütahya escortkocaeli escortkocaeli escortkıbrıs escortkastamonu escortkars escortısparta escortgümüşhane escortgiresun escortgaziantep escortzonguldak escortzonguldak escortyozgat escortyalova escortvan escorttrabzon escorttekirdağ escortsivas escortsamsun escortordu escortmersin escortmaraş escortmalatya escortkütahya escortkuşadası escortkonya escortkayseri escortkastamonu escortısparta escorthatay escortgiresun escorteskişehir escorterzurum escorttekirdağ escortdiyarbakır escortçorum escortçeşme escortburdur escortbolu escortmalatya escortdenizli escortbodrum escortbalıkesir escortafyon escortbalıkesir escortaydın escortartvin escortantep escortantalya escortağrı escortadana escorterzurum escorterzincan escorterzincan escortedirne escortdüzce escortdüzce escortdidim escortdidim escortdenizli escortçorum escortçeşme escortçanakkale escortbursa escortburdur escortbolu escortbodrum escortrize escortordu escortmersin escortkonya escortantalya escortaydın escortartvin escortalanya escortalanya escortağrı escortafyon escortadana escortzonguldak escortyozgat escortyalova escortvan escortuşak escorturfa escorttrabzon escorttekirdağ escortsivas escortsinop escortsinop escortsinop escortsamsun escortsakarya escortordu escortniğde escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortmuğla escortmarmaris escortmardin escortmaraş escortkütahya escortkuşadası escortkonya escortkocaeli escortkıbrıs escortkayseri escortkastamonu escortkars escortısparta escorthatay escortgümüşhane escortgiresun escortrize escortgiresun escorteskişehir escorterzincan escortdiyarbakır escortdidim escortburdur escortbeylikdüzü escorttokat escortmersin escortmanisa escortmalatya escortbolu escortbeylikdüzü escortmalatya escortadana escortafyon escorteskişehir escorterzurum escorterzurum escorterzincan escortelazığ escortelazığ escortelazığ escortelazığ escortedirne escortedirne escortdüzce escortdiyarbakır escortdidim escortdenizli escortçorum escortçeşme escortçeşme escortçanakkale escortçanakkale escortçanakkale escortburdur escortbolu escortbodrum escortbodrum escortbalıkesir escortaydın escortartvin escortartvin escortantep escortantep escortalanya escortağrı escortafyon escortadana escortantalya escortalanya escortalanya escortAmazon Prime izleBeIN Connect izleBlutv izleDisney Plus izleexxen izleGain TV izleNetflix izleAmazon prime izleBlutv izleDisney Plus izlebeylikdüzü escorteryaman escortcaptain blackkalpli sigarasertleştirici hap eczane fiyatlarışişme bebeksertleşme sağlayıcı ilaçlar ve isimleriviagra fiyatManchester Double Drive SigaraKing Edward imperial purobetpas girisbetpas yeni adresibetpas kayitbetbabaikimislirestbetsupertotobetsuperbetinbetsatbets10bahsegelonbahishilbetbetparktarafbetromabetbetmatiktimebetdinamobetelitbahisbetboobahigowinxbetpusulabetaresbetmobilbahisnerobetsuperbahisjetbahisbetbooadana escort1xbet kayıt1xbet casino1xbetpenis sertleştirici cinsel haplarescortGaziantep escortDenizli escortAdana escortHatay escortAydın escortİzmir escortAnkara escortAntalya escortBursa escortİstanbul escortKocaeli escortKonya escortMuğla escortMalatya escortKayseri escortMersin escortSamsun escortSinop escortTekirdağ escortEskişehir escortYalova escortRize escortAmasya escortBalıkesir escortÇanakkale escortBolu escortErzincan escortŞırnak escortVan escortYozgat escortZonguldak escortAfyon escortAdıyaman escortBilecik escortAksaray escortAğrı escortBitlis escortSiirt escortÇorum escortBurdur escortDiyarbakır escortEdirne escortDüzce escortErzurum escortKırklareli escortGiresun escortIsparta escortTrabzon escortSivas escortŞanlıurfa escortSakarya escortTokat escortManisa escortOrdu escortOsmaniye escortArdahan escortKaraman escortBatman escortBayburt escortElazığ escortBingöl escortGümüşhane escortHakkari escortUşak escortIğdır escortBartın escortNevşehir escortKastamonu escortMuş escortMaraş escortKırşehir escortMardin escortKırıkkale escortKarabük escortKars escortKilis escortsertleştirici hap eczane520 kalpli sigara elmalı520 kalpli sigaras20 kalpli sigaraİstanbul escort bayanİstanbul escortİstanbul escortsEscort istanbulistanbul escort bayanİstanbul escortEscort istanbulistanbul escortEscort bayanBayan escortescortEscort bayanbayan escortescortAnkara escort bayanEscort ankaraEscort Bayan İstanbulviagraviagra nedirkamagraviagra siparişcialis kullanımıcialis nedirümraniye escortüsküdar escortzeytinburnu escortkadıköy escortkağıthane escortkartal escortmaltepe escortkeçiören escortmanavgat escortalanya escortbodrum escortkuşadası escortdidim escortarnavutköy escortsilifke escortbelek escortşişli escortpendik escortkarşıyaka escortseyhan escortnilüfer escortesenler escortbeylikdüzü escortİstanbul escortİstanbul escort bayanEscort istanbulBayan escortEscort bayanescorteczanede satılan sertleştirici ilaçlarseoboşalmayı geciktirici haplargeciktirici kremlergeciktirici spreylerpenis büyütücü haplarbayan azdırıcı damlabayan azdırıcı haperken boşalma geciktirici ilaçlarpenis büyütücü çeşitleribayan cinsel istek arttırıcılarcialis fiyatıviagra fiyatlarıbayan cinsel istek arttırıcılarerken boşalmayı geciktirici ilaç çeşitleripenis büyütücü ürün çeşitlerierken boşalmayı geciktirici ilaç çeşitleribayan cinsel istek arttırıcı damlageciktirici sprey çeşitlerien iyi geciktirici kremkadın istek arttırıcı damlaen iyi bayan azdırıcı ilaçcialis fiyatı eczaneviagra eczane fiyatıerken boşalmayı geciktirici haplargeciktirici krem çeşitleripenis büyütücü haplarcinsel gücü arttırıcı ilaçlarbayan azdırıcı ilaçlaren iyi geciktirici ilaç isimleripenis büyütücü kremen iyi bayan cinsel istek arttırıcılarhublaagramtiktok takipçi satın algeciktirici haplargeciktirici kremler çeşitlerikadın azdırıcı çeşitlerigeciktirici ilaç çeşitleripenis büyütücü çeşitlerieczane cialis fiyatıviagra eczane fiyatlarıbayan azdırıcı ilaçlaren iyi geciktiricilerpenis büyütücülerbayan uyarıcılarerken boşalmayı geciktiren ilaçlarpenis büyütücülerviagra eczane satış fiyatlarıeczane cialis fiyatıerken boşalmayı geciktirici ilaçlargeciktirici krem fiyatlarıgeciktirici sprey eczaneen etkili büyütücülerbayan istek arttırıcı çeşitlerien iyi bayan cinsel istek artırıcılarerken boşalmayı geciktirici ilaçpenis büyütücülercialis eczanecialis eczanede kaç tlADIYAMAN ESCORTADANA ESCORTAFYONKARAHİSAR ESCORTAĞRI ESCORTAMASYA ESCORTANKARA ESCORTANTALYA ESCORTARTVİN ESCORTAYDIN ESCORTBALIKESİR ESCORTBİTLİS ESCORTBİNGÖL ESCORTBİLECİK ESCORTBOLU ESCORTBURDUR ESCORTBURSA ESCORTÇANAKKALE ESCORTÇANKIRI ESCORTÇORUM ESCORTDENİZLİ ESCORTDİYARBAKIR ESCORTEDİRNE ESCORTELAZIĞ ESCORTERZİNCAN ESCORTERZURUM ESCORTESKİŞEHİR ESCORTGAZİANTEP ESCORTGİRESUN ESCORTGÜMÜŞHANE ESCORTHATAY ESCORTISPARTA ESCORTMERSİN ESCORTİSTANBUL ESCORTİZMİR ESCORTKARS ESCORTKASTAMONU ESCORTKAYSERİ ESCORTKIRŞEHİR ESCORTKOCAELİ ESCORTKONYA ESCORTKUTAHYA ESCORTMALATYA ESCORTMANİSA ESCORTKAHRAMANMARAŞ ESCORTMARDİN ESCORTMUĞLA ESCORTMUŞ ESCORTNEVŞEHİR ESCORTNİĞDE ESCORTORDU ESCORTRİZE ESCORTSAKARYA ESCORTSAMSUN ESCORTSİNOP ESCORTSİVAS ESCORTTEKİRDAĞ ESCORTTOKAT ESCORTTRABZON ESCORTURFA ESCORTUŞAK ESCORTVAN ESCORTYOZGAT ESCORTZONGULDAK ESCORTAKSARAY ESCORTKARAMAN ESCORTKIRIKKALE ESCORTBATMAN ESCORTBARTIN ESCORTARDAHAN ESCORTIĞDIR ESCORTYALOVA ESCORTKARABÜK ESCORTKİLİS ESCORTOSMANİYE ESCORTDÜZCE ESCORTpostegroinstagram beğeni hilesiAnadolu Yakası Escortavrupa yakası escortinstagram takipci hilesicialis fiyatıcinsel ereksiyon ilaçlarıcialis fiyatlarıviagra fiyatıcialis fiyatı eczaneFlynta 20 Mgkamagra 100 mgOrcafil 20 MgLifta 5 MgHardcis 5 MgLex 20 MgLevitra 20 MgPriligy 30 MgVigaroo 100 MgHardcis 20 MgAfilta 20 MgHardcis 20 Mgdegralifta 20 mgankara escortantalya escortizmir escortmersin escortCinsel sağlık ürünleriCinsel performans ürünleriGeciktirici ürünlerSertleştirici haplarKamagra jelKamagra jel fiyatKamagra jel eczaneVega 100 mgVega 100 mg fiyatViagraViagra fiyatViagra 100 mg fiyatViagra 30 lu fiyatCialisCialis fiyatCialis 20 mg fiyatCialis 100 mg fiyatCialis 30 lu tablet fiyatCialis 5 mg fiyatankara escortantalya escortizmir escort