Bağımsız Güncel Son Dakika Haber Sitesi

Was Occupy Wall Street the ‘Beginning of the Beginning’?

GENERATION OCCUPYReawakening American DemocracyBy Michael Levitin Ten years ago this month, the story goes, a few dozen activists squatted in …

Was Occupy Wall Street the ‘Beginning of the Beginning’?

Reawakening American Democracy
By Michael Levitin

Ten years ago this month, the story goes, a few dozen activists squatted in Zuccotti Park, near Wall Street. Three years had passed since Barack Obama declared “the audacity of hope”; now came the autumn of despair, fury and hand-painted placards. (“THIS IS THE 1ST TIME I’VE FELT HOPEFUL IN A VERY LONG TIME.” “Am I dressed too nice so the media doesn’t interview me?” “TEAR DOWN WALL STREET GREED BEFORE IT TEARS DOWN THE WORLD.” “I’LL BELIEVE CORPORATIONS ARE PEOPLE WHEN TEXAS EXECUTES ONE.” “SCREW US AND WE MULTIPLY.”) They set up tents, and a kitchen, and Wi-Fi for blogging and livestreaming, and congregated for meetings wherein anyone could speak up and the crowd would repeat, phrase by phrase, what the speaker said (they called this the human mic) and, to signal agreement, wiggled their fingers instead of applauding.

A week into the occupation, cellphone cameras captured the spectacle of a police officer spraying pepper spray directly into the eyes of unarmed women; the images went, as they say, viral, and the population of Zuccotti Park (now dubbed Liberty Square) promptly doubled. The following week, more than 700 were arrested after blocking traffic on the Brooklyn Bridge.

Journalists flocked (and some clucked), unions supplied tents (but quietly so), and old-style radicals tore what remained of their hair because the occupiers disdained leadership, clear strategy or structure. Hundreds of replicas sprouted across the country. These activists were “horizontalist.” They disdained the idea of making specific demands, or rather they proliferated them (including “Tax Wall Street Transactions” and “Bring Back Glass-Steagall,” referring to the 1933 law that had separated commercial from investment banking, only to be repealed in 1999 in a measure long sought by bankers and signed into law by President Bill Clinton).

Mayors and police chiefs, aghast, tried to figure out what to do with this new style of disorder. Two months after the first encampment, New York and other cities sent in the cops, tore down the tents, dispersed the occupiers and left them with memories and dreams. End story.

But not so fast. “This is the beginning of the beginning,” read one sign at Zuccotti Park. Put pithily, that is the journalist Michael Levitin’s argument. He heard about the encampment on his car radio, checked out the park, was impressed by the “intensity on the young faces,” returned with his sleeping bag, rolled it out onto cardboard, shivered in the rain, joined in the chaos and the festivity, got “caught in the madness.” Now, in a fluidly written, sometimes lyrical account, quoting many activists to convey the spirit of the enterprise, he argues that far from disappearing, the Occupy encampments sent out ripples that turned into cascades that transformed the American political landscape. Or to use an organizer’s different metaphor, “Occupy was like a sandbox for testing” an “activist toolbox.”

Perhaps 300,000 people became involved with the movement at its height. “It was in the air almost,” an organizer of Washington, D.C., Occupy said. Then it was more than almost. The impacts reverberated through the culture. “We are the 99 percent!” was an ingenious chant, Occupy having adopted Joseph Stiglitz’s arithmetic division of the world; “the 1 percent” — such a puny number of the undeserving ultrarich — largely absorbed earlier generations’ animus toward the Ruling Class, the Power Elite, the Establishment. Who wouldn’t be tempted to join a grand supermajority?

Michael LevitinCredit…Clara Rice

Over the next years, waves of activists discovered, or rediscovered, a taste for civil disobedience and other direct actions. Occupy activists went to the aid of victims of Hurricane Sandy; helped block the Keystone XL pipeline; joined the Lakota Sioux to resist another oil pipeline at Standing Rock; and threw themselves into all manner of climate-change campaigns. Horizontalism proved to be more than a fringe taste, as Occupy veterans joined union organizers in a “Fight for $15” campaign that swept the fast-food industry and inspired minimum wage referendums and laws throughout the country, even in red states.

Whereas the Tea Party movement of 2009-10, lubricated by big money from the Koch brothers and others, took over the Republican Party, Occupy disdained establishment politics. “At its core,” Levitin writes, “it was a movement constrained by its own contradictions: filled with leaders who declared themselves leaderless, governed by a consensus-based structure that failed to reach consensus, seeking to transform politics while refusing to become political.” It was, Levitin concludes, “colorful and chaotic, inspiring and self-defeating.”

But whatever its early animus toward electoral politics, Occupy — and its fellow travelers — set off a convulsion in the Democratic Party that brought President Obama to call inequality “the defining issue of our time.” It gave Elizabeth Warren a platform for her egalitarian reforms and, most consequentially, ushered in Bernie Sanders’s campaigns for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2016 and 2020, moving the party’s center leftward and exerting pressure on the putatively moderate nominee Joe Biden. (In the cheeky but accurate words of Felicia Wong, president and chief executive of the progressive Roosevelt Institute, Biden turned out to be “so old … he’s actually pre-neoliberal.”)

“Sanders crystallized the intangible demands that Occupy had put forward but failed to structure in the litany of accusations against the 1 percent,” Levitin writes. For example, Occupy’s Strike Debt spinoff became the template for Sanders’s 2017 proposal to make public universities free, which in turn evolved into Biden’s more modest but still significant proposal for community colleges.

Levitin’s enthusiasm is infectious, if at times extravagant. Like many journalists on the left, he suggests that Democratic progressives were the big winners in the two recent congressional general elections, whereas the consensus among analysts and academics is that in 2018 moderates did better than progressives in swing districts. (Of course, it’s also true that those moderates were more progressive than the moderates who won earlier elections.) He probably exaggerates Occupy’s impact on the Women’s March of 2017, on the #MeToo movement and Black Lives Matter in 2020, though the precedent of getting lots of people into the streets surely stirred the imagination of many post-2011 activists who would not rush to sleep in parks. He credits the Spanish Podemos party, a derivative of Madrid’s 2011 Indignados movement (which predated Occupy Wall Street by several months), with more political impact than it had, and slides over its authoritarian tendencies with an easy phrase: “missteps and intraparty conflicts.” However radical, policy programs like the Green New Deal will not, as he claims, “drive free-market capitalism out of business.”

As for the future? To steal a phrase from the comedian Mort Sahl, it lies ahead. Anyone looking for assurances of where our national upheavals are heading will need a clearer crystal ball than mine. But it is no exaggeration to say that Occupy Wall Street and its offshoots changed a good deal more of the landscape than Zuccotti Park’s three-quarters of an acre in New York’s financial district.


Henüz yorum yapılmamış. İlk yorumu aşağıdaki form aracılığıyla siz yapabilirsiniz.

bahçe dekorasyonu evde ek gelir eskişehir haber sondakika haberleri magazin haberleri seo sorgulama site analiz seo analiz google sıra bulucu backlink sorgulama sunucu tarama çekiliş çekiliş sitesi Who is html kod şifreleme seo hacklink hacklink satış hacklink panel wordpress ücretsiz tema wordpress free themes wordpress free tema wordpress themes wordpress hacklink al kilo verme wso shell php shell hacklink hacklink panel hızlı seo hacklink seo nedir wso shell instagram takipçi hilesi instagram takipçi hilesi
bahçe dekorasyonu evde ek gelir eskişehir haber sondakika haberleri magazin haberleri seo sorgulama site analiz seo analiz google sıra bulucu backlink sorgulama sunucu tarama çekiliş çekiliş sitesi Who is html kod şifreleme seo hacklink hacklink satış hacklink panel wordpress ücretsiz tema wordpress free themes wordpress free tema wordpress themes wordpress hacklink al kilo verme wso shell php shell hacklink hacklink panel hızlı seo hacklink seo nedir wso shell
hacklink satışbacklink satışsite analizseo analizseo araclarıbacklinkcialis jelcialis fiyatlifta 20 mgviagra satın alviagra 100 mg fiyatviagra siparişcialis 5 mg fiyatsertleştirici haplarlifta hapkayganlaştırıcıbayan azdırıcıpenis büyütücülergeciktiricilerereksiyon haplarıpenis sertleştirici haplarpenis büyütme ürünlerisertleştirici ereksiyon haplarısancaktepe escorteskisehir escortalpu escortizmir escortankara escortmersin escorteskişehir escortgaziantep escortsakarya escortkayseri escortantalya escortistanbul escortbursa escortadana escortadıyamanescortafyon escortağrı escortaksaray escortartvin escortaydın escortamasya escortardahan escortbalıkesir escortbartın escortbatman escortbayburt escortbilecik escortbingöl escortbitlis escortbolu escortburdur escortçanakkale escortçankırı escortçorum escortdenizli escortdiyarbakır escortdüzce escortedirne escortelazığ escorterzincan escorterzurum escortgiresun escortgümüşhane escorthatay escortığdır escortısparta escortmaraş escortkarabük escortkars escortkastamonu escortkilis escortkırıkkale escortkırklareli escortkırşehir escortkocaeli escortkonya escortkütahya escortmalatya escortmanisa escortmardin escortmuğla escortmuş escortnevşehir escortniğde escortordu escortosmaniye escortrize escortsamsun escorturfa escortsiirt escortuşak escortsinop escortşırnak escortsivas escorttekirdağ escorttokat escorttrabzon escorttunceli escortvan escortyozgat escortyalova escortzonguldak escortkıbrıs escortpendik escortesenyurt escortzeytinburnu escortküçükçekmece escortbeşiktaş escorttuzla escortbeykoz escortfatih escortsancaktepe escortarnavutköy escortbağcılar escortümraniye escortbeyoğlu escortüsküdar escortesenler escortmecidiyeköy escortsarıyer escortetiler escortlevent escortbebek escortgaziosmanpaşa escortkartal escortbaşakşehir escortşişli escorthalkalı escortbahçelievler escortortaköy escorteyüp escortbahçeşehir escortkağıthane escorttaksim escortçekmeköy escortsultançiftliği escortşaşkınbakkal escortbayrampaşa escortbeylikdüzü escortkadıköy escortataşehir escortbakırköy escortmerter escortataköy escortnişantaşı escortkozyatağı escortavcılar escortbüyükçekmece escortkurtköy escortiçerenköy escortküçükyalı escortbostancı escortşirinevler escorterenköy escortadana escortadıyaman escortafyon escortağrı escortaksaray escortamasya escortankara escortantalya escortardahan escortartvin escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortbartın escortbatman escortbayburt escortbilecik escortbingöl escortbitlis escortbolu escortburdur escortbursa escortçanakkale escortçankırı escortçorum escortdenizli escortdiyarbakir escortdüzce escortedirne escortelazığ escorterzincan escorterzurum escorteskişehir escortantep escortgiresun escortgümüşhane escorthakkari escorthatay escortığdır escortistanbul escortizmir escortkarabük escortkaraman escortkars escortkastamonu escortkütahya escortkayseri escortkıbrıs escortkilis escortkırıkkale escortkırklareli escortkırşehir escortkocaeli escortkonya escortmalatya escortmanisa escortmaraş escortmardin escortmersin escortmuğla escortmuş escortnevşehir escortniğde escortordu escortosmaniye escortrize escortsakarya escortsamsun escortsiirt escortsinop escortçorlu escortçerkezköy escortsivas escortmanisa escortizmir escorthatay escorterzurum escortbalikesir escorturfa escorttrabzon escorttekirdag escortsamsun escortsakarya escortordu escortmugla escortmersin escortmardin escortmaras escortmalatya escortkonya escortkocaeli escortkayseri escorteskisehir escortdiyarbakir escortdenizli escortbursa escortaydin escortantep escortankara escortadana escortkuvvet macunusertleştirici macunyapay kızlık zarısertleştirici ilaçlarserleşme haplarısertleştirici ereksiyon ilaçlarıereksiyon haplarıvajina daraltıcı kremeczane ereksiyon ilaçlarıpenis sertleştiricihacklinkwordpress ücretsiz temahacklink seowso shellwso shellwso shellhtml code encryptionhtml kod şifrelemeinstagram takipçi hilesiçekiliş sitesiserver scansunucu taramasite speed testsite hız testiseo newsgoogle newssite analysisseo analysisbacklink saleshacklink panelwordpress themeswordpress free temaWordpress Free Themeshtml kod şifrelemeWho isbacklink alsunucu taramapubg hile alTanıtım Yazısıseoseo sorgulaseo sorgulamaBest Gaming Monitorswireless earbudsshapermint bra reviewsBest Dog Crateraycon reviewsbest stethoscopeinstagram beğeni hilesiinstagram unfollowinstagram takipci satın alinstagram Followers Freeinsagram Free Followerssmm panelsmm panelinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram Followersinstagram free likesinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram takipci hilesibomonti escortgültepe escortbursa escortnisantasi escorttaksim escortkurtkoy escort bayanpendik escort bayantatto girlsoyun indirmakale programımeme küçültmeinstagram takipçi hilesibacklink albacklink satıştempobet1xbetrotabetjojobetsekabetbetisttempobet1xbetmobilbahisperabetmarsbahissuperbetincratosslotpaykwikastropaytempobetbetbooelexbetsultanbetbaymavicasinomaxirestbetsafirbetsafirbettempobetbetebet canlikadın newskadına özelworld newssex hikayeizmir escortmersin escortataşehir escortataşehir escortbeşiktaş escortesenler escortesenyurt escortfatih escortkadıköy escortkartal escortmaltepe escortpendik escortsarıyer escortpendik escortmaltepe escortkartal escortkadıköy escorttaksim escortsilivri escortşişli escortbağcılar escortbursa escortantalya escortankara escortadana escortgaziantep escortseo analysisistanbul escortviagra satın alviagra fiyatıdegrawso shellpendik escortc99 shelladana escortcanlı bahisadana eskortnevşehir escortbedava bonus veren bahis siteleribedava bonusdeneme bonusu30 tl bonus veren bahis sitelerihoşgeldin bonususex hikayeleriTürkçe Bahis Şirketlericanlı bahiskaçak iddaabahisbahis sitelerihoşgeldin bonusu veren bahis siteleriporno hikayeleristanbul escortc99 shellr57 shellbypass shellwebroot shellpendik escortvigrandedegra 100 mgorcafilcialis nedircialis 20 mg eczane fiyatıcialis fiyatcialis 20 mgcialis 100 mgviagra fiyatliftalifta 5 mghardciscialis eczanecialis 5 mg fiyatıcialis 100 mg fiyatcialis 5 mgviagra fiyatlarıviagra satışonline eczane viagraviagra eczanecialis 20 mgcialis 100 mgcialis hapcialis 20cialis eczanecialis satışcialis fiyatlarıcialis fiyatıviagra fiyatviagra fiyatlarıviagra eczaneviagra satın alpfizer viagra satışonline eczane viagrapfizer viagra satın alviagra siparişviagra sipariş hattıviagra fiyat 2021online viagra siparişviagra fiyat 2021 eczaneviagra fiyat eczaneankara escortAnkara escort kızlarEscort ankaraankara escort bayanSincan escortSincan escort bayanEryaman escortEscort eryamanEscort sincanEtlik escortEtlik escort bayanKızılay escortantalya escortantalya escort bayanantalya escort bayanantalya escortankara escort bayanKeçiören escort bayanEscort ankaraKızılay escort bayanEryaman escort bayanEscort antalyaÇankaya escortEscort antalyaKeçiören EscortÇankaya escort bayanankara escortAnkara rus escortkartal escortcialis 5 mgkamagra satın alkamagrakamagra jelkamagra jel siparişkamagra siparişkamagra fiyatkamagra jel fiyatıkamagra fiyatıkamagra 100mgkamagra 100mg fiyatsüper kamagrakamagra nedirpendik escortkurtkoy escorttuzla escortkayseri escortmozrankGamelooplogsuz shell indirlitespeed bypass shellindoxploit shellphp shellgoogle sıra buluculitespeed bypass shellbacklink sorgulamaeryaman escortistanbul bayan escorthacklink satışbacklink satışhacklink panelhacklinkbingöl escorteskişehir escortkırklareli escortçekmeköy escortsultangazi escortbodrum escortkuşadası escortc99 shellc99 shelllifta 20 mgliftalifta 20lifta 20 mg nedirlifta nedirhacklink seokarşıyaka escortbuca escortalsancak escortkonak escortkuşadası escortbeylikdüzü escortbornova escortçeşme escortgöztepe escortçankaya escortankara escortankara escort bayanescort ankaraescort ankaraankara escort bayanankara escortankara escortankara escort bayanescort ankaraphp encodebase64 encodecialis fiyatcialis fiyatlarıcialis 20 mgcialiscialis 100 mgcialis 5 mgcialis satışviagra fiyatıPendik EscortTuzla EscortKartal EscortKurtkoy EscortMalatya EscortEryaman EscortÇankaya Escortkayseri escortadana escortamasya escortbartın escortbatman escortadıyaman escortbayburt escortartvin escortantalya escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortağrı escortafyon escortbilecik escortbingöl escortburdur escortbolu escortbursa escortçanakkale escortçorum escortdüzce escortedirne escortçankırı escortdiyarbakır escortdenizli escortelazığ escortgiresun escorthatay escortkaraman escortısparta escortmaraş escortkars escortkastamonu escortgümüşhane escorteskişehir escortkarabük escorterzincan escorterzurum escortkayseri escortkütahya escortkırıkkale escortkırklareli escortmardin escortkonya escortmuğla escortkocaeli escortmanisa escortmersin escortkırşehir escortmalatya escortmuş escortosmaniye escortnevşehir escortniğde escortsamsun escortordu escortrize escorturfa escortsakarya escortsinop escorttekirdağ escortyalova escortzonguldak escortyozgat escortsivas escorttunceli escorttrabzon escortuşak escorttokat escortvan escortşırnak escortsivas escortuşak escorttunceli escortkıbrıs escortkıbrıs escorttekirdağ escortyozgat escorttokat escortzonguldak escorttrabzon escortvan escortyalova escortantalya escortankara escortizleANKARA ESCORTviagra fiyatinstagram followers free