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The Visionary Community of the Harlem Y.M.C.A.

THE MOST PROMINENT building on West 135th Street and Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard in Harlem is not an elaborate church or a stately …

The Visionary Community of the Harlem Y.M.C.A.

THE MOST PROMINENT building on West 135th Street and Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard in Harlem is not an elaborate church or a stately apartment building but the 90-year-old Y.M.C.A. But despite its bulk, the edifice — with its brick facade, 14-story tower and tall sign with the letters “Y.M.C.A.” blazing in red neon each night — can be easy to overlook: It’s been a mainstay of the neighborhood for so long that its residents sometimes forget to notice it.

Yet the institution — and what it represents, not only to Harlem but to the advancement of 20th-century Black American culture — is monumental, a living repository of nearly a century of art, activism and history. Inside, the air smells waxy, like old crayons, and there’s an elegant patina throughout, from the sable oak-paneled walls to the worn, coral-colored floor tiles. Past the wooden reception booth gleams a bronze United States Post Office mail chute — still in use — decorated with an Art Deco-style bald eagle. Down a few steps and through an arched French double door is a small white room with a mural by Aaron Douglas, a 20th-century painter whose works can be found in Washington, D.C.’s, National Gallery of Art and New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Aaron Douglas’s “Evolution of Negro Dance” (1935) at the Harlem Y.M.C.A.Credit…© 2021 Heirs of Aaron Douglas/Licensed by VAGA at Artists Rights Society (ARS), NY. Photo: Joshua McHugh

The 5-by-11-foot work, titled “Evolution of Negro Dance,” was completed in 1935 and depicts different stages of Black life in America. On its far left are gray silhouettes of enslaved people, their knees and wrists held together as if shackled. As you move toward the right, the figures transition from a supplicatory stance to a self-assured one until, finally, you encounter an illustration of a woman dancing, her head thrown back in laughter as a band plays beside her. Like the rest of the building, it enshrines the development of Black life in America, a story that ends with Black people becoming business and property owners, actors and writers, poets and singers.

In another undated image taken between the 1940s and ’70s, Hansen captured the aquatics team at the West 135th Street branch.Credit…Kautz Family Y.M.C.A. Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries. Photograph by Austin Hansen, used by permission of the Estate of Austin Hansen

After its founding, the Y.M.C.A. became an incubator for the Harlem Renaissance. Prominent voices of the movement — the essayist Alain LeRoy Locke, the poet Countee Cullen, the novelists Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison — all stayed or worked here in the early 20th century. The Y, which provided room and board for a few dollars, became a safe haven for artistic expression, a place to talk freely, away from the strictures of a country still run by Jim Crow laws, and a shared living room for some of the six million Black Americans who were moving from the South as part of the Great Migration, which began in 1916 and would last until 1970. Some would venture to other metropolises, like Chicago and Detroit, but many would land in Harlem, a destination for Black people of all professions and means. This was a neighborhood where they could eat at a Black-owned restaurant, go dancing at a Black-owned speakeasy or saloon, shop at a Black-owned drugstore or play pool at a Black-owned billiard hall. They could acquire property from the Jewish and Irish homeowners who started leaving as soon as Black people began arriving in significant numbers at the turn of the century — and they could meet and learn from one another, in a place where they were equal. In 1925, Locke, the first Black Rhodes Scholar, who often worked out of the Harlem Y alongside the poet Langston Hughes, edited a magazine that called the surrounding area “the Mecca of the New Negro”: a man who isn’t harassed or patronized but, rather, moves under his own steam. Later, Hughes would write what would become one of his best-known poems, “Theme for English B” (1951), about a young man who lives at the Harlem Y.

THE YOUNG MEN’S Christian Association was founded in England in 1844 and arrived stateside in Boston seven years later, offering lodging, meals, job training and educational services exclusively to white men. The Harlem branch’s first dedicated building was established in 1868 at 5 West 125th Street — now a T.J. Maxx — where, for about $5 a year, members had access to a lending library, a gym, and cycling and baseball clubs, as well as classes in botany, typewriting, mechanical drawing and languages like Spanish and French.

The Harlem Y.M.C.A., circa 1932.Credit…Kautz Family Y.M.C.A. Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries.

That building was made of brownstone, with a gabled roof and two sets of large bay windows across its facade fronting what’s now called Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. An 1882 Y.M.C.A. annual report noted that Harlem, then known as the Twelfth Ward — it had been annexed by Manhattan nine years earlier — was rapidly evolving; once a rural, village-like enclave for rich English, Dutch and French families, it had become desirable among city elites. (Alexander Hamilton built his mansion there in 1802.) Harlem’s first Black families had relocated from downtown Manhattan after being displaced by European immigrants in the late 1800s. By 1914, the neighborhood had 50,000 Black residents.

Their arrival coincided with significant shifts in the city’s racial demographic and, in 1867, a group of 35 Manhattan residents submitted an application to the Y’s board of directors requesting the establishment of the country’s first Colored Young Men’s Christian Association. The men initially met at an independently run downtown branch in what is today SoHo. A few years later, some of these members began lobbying for a distinctly Black Y.M.C.A. Even without its own location, “the Colored Branch is exerting a wide influence among the colored men of the city and through the country,” the association noted in its 1867-68 annual report. It called its three dozen Black members “self-reliant” and outlined what was perceived to be their mission: “Without any political or sectarian bias, the members aim to instruct their newly liberated brethren in all that will tend to make them useful and happy, and to unite them in efforts for religious education as the true means of elevation.”

After three decades of petitioning, a dedicated Colored Young Men’s Christian Association was established in 1901. In 1918, following a round of fund-raising, the group left its location on West 53rd Street for a property it purchased on Harlem’s West 135th Street; a new building was constructed in 1919. During its first years of operation, the Colored Branch served around 1,000 members, and its dormitory rooms sold out near nightly.

The American track champion Archie Harris, resting in his room at the Harlem Y, photographed by Gordon Parks in 1957.Credit…Gordon Parks/The Life Picture Collection/Shutterstock

IF HARLEM HAD become the epicenter of Black America, then the Y was the epicenter of that epicenter. Members might begin the morning with Bible class, then attend a men’s meeting (the Black women’s branch of the Young Women’s Christian Association moved from Midtown to Harlem in 1913), where topics ranged from health to the economy. Others formed their own clubs and extracurricular organizations; performers like Paul Robeson, Richard Pryor and Sidney Poitier took the stage in the basement’s Little Theater. In 1931, a then-30-year-old Hughes became a features editor for the branch’s newsletter, The New Sign, in which he chronicled the buzzing neighborhood and asked his readers provocative questions: “Why is it that, with all their pretensions to culture, their money and degrees, the ‘best Negroes’ have not yet produced a single writer who can write about the upper classes with anything remotely approaching the artistry of Claude McKay? Somebody please tell me, I’d like to know.”

As the Y continued to develop, so, too, did Black society. Men like Phillip Anthony Payton Jr., the so-called Father of Harlem, started real estate and insurance businesses, and managed dozens of buildings in the area. People went to nightclubs — there were hundreds at the time — to listen to jazz and dance. Ladies might get their hair done at Madam C.J. Walker’s hair salon, run by her daughter, A’Lelia Walker, in a townhouse a block away, on West 136th Street.

Eartha Kitt with students at the Harlem Y.M.C.A., 1955.Credit…Photograph by Austin Hansen, used by permission of the Estate of Austin Hansen. Photo courtesy of the Photographs and Prints Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library

Both the Y and the neighboring storefronts were among the only places where Black New Yorkers could finally form ideas about who they were and wanted to become. They created campaigns like 1934’s Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work, after which Black Harlemites boycotted white businesses that refused to hire them. They celebrated their own local luminaries like Douglas, the painter, and the writer Zora Neale Hurston. And while none of these venues were truly utopian in an era of ongoing social and economic stratification, they nevertheless provided some reprieve from daily indignities. Here was somewhere to just sit and think, much like the historically Black colleges and universities, whose students played a pivotal role during the civil rights movement of the 1960s, or today’s flourishing of Black-owned businesses — from flower shops to fashion boutiques to co-working spaces — amid the Black Lives Matter movement (and other grass-roots efforts), all of which continue to prove the power and necessity of creating a space of one’s own.

As Harlem became more Black (by 1930, Black people accounted for 70 percent of the neighborhood’s residents), several other cultural institutions dedicated to helping, chronicling and celebrating its residents’ lives and history joined the Y: The area soon welcomed the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture — named for Arturo Alfonso Schomburg, a pioneering local historian — the New York Urban League and the New York Amsterdam News, a Black newspaper that often published editorials about the changing neighborhood. As one unsigned article put it in 1926, Harlem was now a neighborhood for a person “determined to have freedom in all its phases,” if “not necessarily a diploma, a white collar, a salary from a charity organization — he believes in God and himself and his future and is hard at work.”

These days, Harlem remains among the most prominent and vibrant Black neighborhoods in the country, a place where history abuts innovation on every block. The Harlem Y, which moved down the street in 1932, still runs neighborhood programs, from children’s swimming lessons to adult exercise classes, and its dormitories have been converted into a hostel and temporary housing for the homeless. It continues to welcome newcomers and those in need from the rest of the country and abroad. Here was where the dream of Black America began — and here is where the dream continues, still.

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escortavcılar üniversiteli escortavrupa yakası escortbağdat caddesi escortbahçelievler escortbahçesehir escortbakırköy üniversiteli escortbakırköy escortbakırköy eve gelen escortbakırköy masöz escortbakırköy otele gelen escortbakırköy rus escortbakırköy türbanlı escortbakırköy ucuz escortbaşakşehir escortbeşiktaş escortbeşyol escortbeykent escortbeylikdüzü escortbeylikdüzü eve gelen escortbeylikdüzü masöz escortbeylikdüzü otele gelen escortbeylikdüzü rus escortbeylikdüzü türbanlı escortbeylikdüzüucuz escortbeylikdüzü üniversiteli escortbeyoğlu escortbizimkent escortbostancı escortbüyükcekmece escortesenyurt escortesenyurt eve gelen escortesenyurt otele gelen escortesenyurt rus escortesenyurt turbanlı escortesenyurt ucuz escortesenyurt üniversiteli escortetiler escorteve gelen escortfatih escorthalkalı escorthalkalı eve gelen escorthalkalı masöz escorthalkalı otele gelen escorthalkalı rus escorthalkalı türbanlı escorthalkalı ucuz escorthalkalı üniversiteli escortharamidere escortinnovia escortistanbul escortkadıköy escortkağıthane escortkartal escortküçükçekmece escortmaltepe escortmecidiyeköy escortmerter escortotele gelen escortpendik escortrus escortsarıyer escortsefaköy escortsilivri escortşirinevler escortşirinevler türbanlışirinevler ucuzşişli escortsınırsız escorttaksim escorttesettürlü escorttopkapı escorttürbanlı escorttüyap escortucuz escortümraniye escortüniversiteli öğrenci escortyabancı escortyenibosna escortzeytinburnu escortsmm panelgaziantep escortmersin escortpostegroweb postegroweb postegroalanya escortbodrum escortdidim escortfethiye escortkuşadası escortmanavgat escortmarmaris escorteczane sertleşme haplarıyapay kızlık zarıkaynarca escortatalar escortcevizli escortEscorts İn BodrumBodrum Bayan Escortpostegropostegroweb postegroizmit escortkocaeli escortizmit escortkocaeli escortgebze escortgölcük escortdarica escortizmit otele gelen escortizmit eve gelen escortkocaeli evi olan escortotele gelen escortizmit sınırsız escortcialis 20 mg fiyatcialis 100 mg fiyatcialis 5 mg fiyatviagra 100 mg fiyatcialis 5 mg fiyatcialis fiyat eczanepostegropostegrocinsel hastalıklarereksiyon sorunuacarkent escortbahariye escortcialis 20 mgcialis 100 mgcialis 5 mgcialis fiyatcialiscialis fiyatlarıviagra fiyatviagra siparişcialis satışcialis siparişviagra fiyatlarıkartal escortbedava bonus veren bahis siteleribahisgaziantep escortviagraviagra fiyatpostegropostegropostegroDubai escortsDubai escortsLondon escortsfree instagram followersMarmaris Escortpendik escortkartal escortkurtkoy escorttuzla escorthalkalı escortbayrampaşa escortbaşakşehir escortbahçelievler escortbağcılar escortbahçeşehir escortkadın giyimfantezi babydollfantezi çorapfantezi giyimKadın üst giyimkadın alt giyimkadın ayakkabıkadın atletbluz bodybot bootiekadın ceketkadın çizmekadın elbiseelbise abiyekadın eşofman altıkadın eşofman takımıAnkara escort bayanturgutreis escortpostegroweb postegroweb postegropostegroizmit escortistanbul escortkaynarca escortviagra 100 mg fiyatviagra 100 mg fiyatgaziantep escort bayanGüvenilir bahis SiteleriBalgat escortÇankaya escortCebeci escortDemetevler escortDikmen escortEryaman escortEsat escortEtlik escortKeçiören escortKızılay escortKolej escortRus escortSincan escortYenimahalle escortAtaşehir escortanadolu yakası escortAnadolu yakası escortAtaşehir escortAtaşehir escortKadıköy escortKadıköy escortÜmraniye escortÜmraniye escortBostancı escortBostancı escortbostancı escortpostegroadana escortadana escort bayanafyon escortacarkent escortacibadem escortadalar escortafyon escortalanya escort bayanalanya escortantalya escort bayanantalya escortartvin escortartvin escortbeylikdüzü escortbeylikdüzü escortbeylikdüzü escortbeylikdüzü escortbodrum escortbolu escortbolu escortburdur escortbursa escortbursa escortçanakkale escortçanakkale escortçeşme escortdidim escortdiyarbakır escortdiyarbakır escortedirne escortedirne escortelazığ escortelazığ escorterzincan escorterzincan escorterzurum escorterzurum escortbodrum escortbursa escortbursa escorteskişehir escorteskişehir escortgaziantep escortgaziantep escortgaziantep escortgiresun escortgiresun escortgümüşhane escorthatay escorthatay escortısparta escortısparta escortkars escortkastamonu escortkastamonu escortkayseri escortkayseri escortkıbrıs escortkıbrıs escortkonya escortkonya escortkuşadası escortkütahya escortkütahya escortmalatya escortmalatya escortmanisa escortmanisa escortmardin escortmardin escortmarmaris escortmersin escortnevşehir escortnevşehir escortniğde escortniğde escortordu escortordu escortrize escortrize escortsakarya escortsakarya escortsamsun escortsamsun escortşanlıurfa escortşanlıurfa escortsinop escortsinop escortsivas escortsivas escorttekirdağ escorttekirdağ escorttrabzon escorttrabzon escortuşak escortvan escortvan escortyalova escortyalova escortyozgat escortyozgat escortzonguldak escortzonguldak escortCoinbar girişSafirbet girişcratosslot girişAsyabahis girişTempobet girişMarsbahis girişBetebet girişVdcasino girişVevobahis girişBetper girişimajbet girişHoliganbet girişJojobet girişAnadolucasino girişArtemisbet girişbelugabahis girişbetvole girişinterbahis girişmilanobet girişZeytinburnu EscortYeşilköy EscortYenibosna EscortÜmraniye EscortTopkapı EscortTaksim EscortSuadiye EscortSınırsız EscortŞişman EscortŞişli EscortŞirinevler EscortSilivri EscortPendik EscortOrtaköy EscortOlgun EscortNişantaşı EscortMerter EscortMecidiyeköy EscortMaslak EscortMaltepe EscortMahmutbey EscortLevent EscortKurtköy EscortKüçükyalı EscortKüçükçekmece EscortKartal EscortKağıthane EscortKadıköy Escortİstanbul Escortİkitelli EscortHaramidere EscortHalkalı EscortGöztepe EscortGenç EscortFlorya EscortFındıkzade EscortFatih EscortEtiler EscortEsenyurt EscortEscort NumaralarıEscort BayanlarErenköy EscortElit Escortçekmeköy escortÇıtır Escortşerifali escortCihangir Escortümraniye escortüsküdar escortCevizli EscortCennet Mahallesi Escortsuadiye escortÇapa Escortkadıköy escortÇağlayan Escortgöztepe escortBüyükçekmece Escortbostancı escortgöztepe escortBostancı EscortBeyoğlu Escortsuadiye escorterenköy escortbostancı escortanadolu yakası escortavrupa yakası escortBeylikdüzü EscortBeşiktaş Escortanadolu yakası escortBayrampaşa EscortBaşakşehir Escortümraniye escortBakırköy Escortkadıköy escortBahçelievler Escortbostancı escortBağdat Caddesi Escortataşehir escortBağcılar Escortcevizli escortatalar escortmaltepe escortAvrupa Yakası Escortkartal escortmaltepe escortAvcılar EscortAtaşehir Escortümraniye escortsupertotobetrestbet girisbetpas girisbetbabayurtdisiaugenoperationbotox bruisinghepsibahisrexbetsuperbetinbetsatbets10romabettarafbetbetparkhilbetonbahisbahsegelbahigowinxbetelitbahisdinamobetbetmatiktimebetgebze escortleopard honeyAnkara escortUlus escortTunalı escortTandoğan escortSıhhiye escortRus escortMamak escortMamak escortGölbaşı escortCinsel sağlık ürünleriCinsel performans ilaçlarıCialis fiyatCialis 20 mg fiyatCialis 100 mg fiyatCialis 30 lu tablet fiyatViagra fiyatViagra 100 mg fiyatViagra 30 lu fiyatViagra 4 lü tablet fiyatıVega 100 mgVega 100 mg fiyatVega 100 mg eczaneKamagra jelKamagra Jel fiyatKamagra jel eczaneSertleştirici haplarGeciktirici ürünlercialiscinsel sağlık ürünleribayan azdırıcı fiyatkadın azdırıcı damlasertleştirici ilaçlarcialis fiyatviagra fiyatpenis büyütücükamagra jelgeciktirici spreycialis 20 mgcialis 100 mgviagra 30 luen iyi penis sertleştirici ilaçsertleştirici haplarelazığ escort bayanhasta yataklarıkent switch fiyatmarlboro shuffleparliament aqua bluemarlboro double fusionmarlboro shufflekent switchdjarum blackdjarum blackAnadolu yakası escortAtaşehir escortBostancı escortErenköy Escortavrupa yakası escortAtaköy EscortAvcılar EscortBahçeşehir Escortözel escortlaranal escortçıtır escortelit escortAnadolu Yakası escortAtaşehir escortbağdat caddesi escortBostancı escortGöztepe Escortİstanbul EscortKadıköy EscortKartal EscortKurtköy EscortMaltepe EscortPendik EscortŞerifali EscortTuzla EscortÜmraniye escortÜsküdar EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortAtaşehir escortBostancı EscortGöztepe EscortAvrupa Yakası EscortAksaray escortAtaköy EscortAvcılar Escortİstanbul EscortAtaşehir Elit EscortAtaşehir Esmer EscortAtaşehir Genç EscortAtaşehir Olgun EscortAtaşehir Sarışın EscortAtaşehir Şişman EscortAtaşehir Sınırsız EscortAtaşehir Ucuz EscortAtaşehir Yabancı EscortAteşehir Escort BayanBağdat Caddesi EscortBağdat Caddesi Olgun EscortBağdat Caddesi Sarışın EscortBağdat Caddesi Şişman EscortBağdat Caddesi Ucuz EscortBağdat Caddesi Yabancı EscortBostancı Elit EscortBostancı Çıtır EscortBostancı EscortBostancı Esmer EscortBostancı Olgun EscortBostancı Sarışın EscortBostancı Yabancı EscortGöztepe EscortGöztepe Genç EscortGöztepe Olgun EscortGöztepe Şişman EscortGöztepe Sınırsız EscortGöztepe Ucuz EscortKadıköy Anal EscortKadıköy Elit EscortKadıköy EscortKadıköy Eskort BayanlarKadıköy Genç EscortKadıköy Yabancı EscortKartal Çıtır EscortKartal EscortKartal Eskort BayanlarKartal Esmer EscortKartal Sarışın EscortKartal Sınırsız EscortKartal Ucuz EscortKaynarca EscortKaynarca Genç EscortKaynarca Olgun EscortKaynarca Şişman EscortKurtköy EscortKurtköy Escort BayanKurtköy Ucuz EscortKurtköy Yabancı Escort BayanMaltepe Anal EscortMaltepe EscortMaltepe Genç EscortMaltepe Olgun EscortMaltepe Şişman EscortPendik EskortPendik Eskort BayanlarPendik Sarışın EscortPendik Şişman EscortPendik Sınırsız EscortPendik Ucuz EscortTuzla Anal EscortTuzla Elit EscortTuzla EscortTuzla Yabancı EscortÜmraniye EscortÜmraniye Masöz EscortÜmraniye Olgun EscortÜmraniye Ucuz Escortepoksi zeminepoksi zemin kaplamaepoksi yol çizgisişişli escortAcıbadem Escortİçerenköy EscortKozyatağı EscortKüçükyalı EscortKadıköy EscortKartal EscortMaltepe EscortPendik EscortKurtköy EscortŞerifali EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortKadıköy EscortAtaşehir EscortBostancı EscortAtaşehir EscortKadıköy EscortKurtköy EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortAtaşehir EscortBostancı EscortKadıköy EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortKadıköy EscortAtaşehir EscortBostancı EscortMaltepe EscortGöztepe EscortPendik EscortErenköy EscortGöztepe EscortSuadiye EscortGöztepe EscortMaltepe EscortŞerifali EscortKartal EscortKurtköy EscortPendik EscortKurtköy EscortPendik EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortKartal EscortMaltepe EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortKartal Escort BayanKurtköy Escort BayanMaltepe Escort BayanPendik Escort BayanAnadolu Yakası EscortKartal EscortKurtköy EscortMaltepe EscortPendik EscortTuzla EscortKurtköy EscortPendik EscortTuzla EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortMaltepe EscortKartal EscortBostancı EscortÜmraniye EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortKadıköy EscortAtaşehir EscortTuzla EscortGebze EscortAydınlı EscortMutlukent EscortPendik EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortKurtköy EscortÜmraniye EscortBostancı EscortKartal Escort BayanPendik Escort BayanKurtköy Escort BayanMaltepe EscortAnadolu Yakası EscortBostancı EscortKartal EscortMaltepe EscortÜmraniye Escortbağdat caddesi escortgöztepe escortistanbul escortkartal escortkurtköy escortmaltepe escortpendik escorttuzla escortüsküdar escortataköy escortavcılar escort bayanavrupa yakası escortbahçeşehir escortbakırköy escortbeşiktaş escortbeylikdüzü escorterenköy escortetiler escortgöztepe escortikitelli escortkartal escortkurtköy escortmaltepe escortmecidiyeköy escortpendik escortşirinevler escortşişli escortsoğanlık escortataşehir escortkaynarca escortümraniye escortgebze escorttuzla escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortavrupa yakası escortatalar escortcevizli escortescort bayanmaltepe escortbeylikdüzü escortavcılar escortesenyurt escortbahçeşehir escortşirinevler escortataköy escortbeylikduzuescortev.comescort beylikdüzüWhatsapp aerobeylikdüzü eskortbahariye escortmoda escortsex hikayeleriadana escortadıyaman escortafyon escortağrı escortaksaray escortamasya escortankara escortantalya escortantep escortardahan escortartvin escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortbartın escortbatman escortbayburt 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escortvega 100 mg hapseofuck googledolandırıcı hesap satışıviagrabacklink almetin2 pvppvp metin2metin2emek serveradana escortadana escortanadolu yakasi escortpendik escortistanbul escort