Bağımsız Güncel Son Dakika Haber Sitesi

Abol Hassan Bani-Sadr, Former Iranian President, Dies at 88

Abol Hassan Bani-Sadr, who as the first president of the Islamic Republic of Iran tried and failed to resist the currents of religious radicalism …

Abol Hassan Bani-Sadr, who as the first president of the Islamic Republic of Iran tried and failed to resist the currents of religious radicalism, died on Saturday at the Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital in Paris. He was 88.

His death came after a long illness, his family said on Mr. Bani-Sadr’s official website.

Mr. Bani-Sadr was president when the newborn Islamic Republic went through two of its greatest traumas. Militants stormed the United States embassy in Tehran on Nov. 4, 1979. Ten months later, Saddam Hussein’s army invaded Iran, setting off the horrific Iran-Iraq war.

The revolution’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, used these two episodes to purge secularists, nationalists and other moderates from Iran’s government. Mr. Bani-Sadr was the most prominent victim.

Soon after American diplomats were taken hostage at the U.S. embassy, Mr. Bani-Sadr visited the occupiers and urged them to withdraw.

“You think you have taken America hostage,” he told them. “What a delusion! In fact, you have made Iran the hostage of the Americans.”

Several months later, Iran’s ambassador to the United Nations, Mansour Farhang, resigned in protest of his government’s failure to end the crisis and wrote a long article condemning the takeover. A newspaper connected to Mr. Bani-Sadr was the only one in Iran to publish it.

Mr. Farhang, who became a professor of political science at Bennington College, remembered Mr. Bani-Sadr as “a genuinely liberal Muslim.”

“In the position of nominal power for a year and a half, he was more of a preacher and teacher than a manager of power,” Mr. Farhang said in an interview for this obituary in 2013. “Intellectually and temperamentally, he could not function as a politician in an autocratic state.”

Mr. Bani-Sadr was an admirer of Mohammad Mossadegh, who was Iran’s nationalist prime minister in the early 1950s until he was deposed in a coup directed by the C.I.A. He sought to revive Mr. Mossadegh’s political bloc, the National Front, and infuse it with moderate Islam to create a new form of government for Iran.

“Bani-Sadr was active in the early 1960s in the emergence of the second National Front and played a leading role in its student section,” the Iranian American historian Fakhreddin Azimi said in interview for this obituary. “After the revolution, as president in the most unfavorable circumstances, he endeavored to rely on Khomeini’s support and good will, as well as on his own popularity, to ward off or slow down the rise of clerical supremacy.”

“His efforts, given the disarray of broadly secular forces actually or potentially favorable to him and the ability of the clerics to win over Khomeini, were doomed to failure. With the loss of Khomeini’s support, his fate was sealed,” he said.

Mr. Bani-Sadr was born on March 22, 1933, into a family of pious landowners in Hamadan, Iran, said to be one of the world’s oldest towns. After studying law, theology and sociology at Tehran University, he moved to Paris, where he spent several years in the 1960s studying at the Sorbonne. He was caught up in the student movement and led protests against the regime of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi.

Information on Mr. Bani-Sadr’s survivors was not immediately available.

In the 1970s, Mr. Bani-Sadr met Ayatollah Khomeini, a friend of his late father, who had also been a cleric. They were reunited in Paris after Ayatollah Khomeini was exiled there in 1978.

In one of the 20th century’s most spectacular political collapses, the shah fled Iran on Jan. 16, 1979. Ayatollah Khomeini, who had directed the revolution from exile, returned home two weeks later. In the broad-based government that the ayatollah installed, Mr. Bani-Sadr served as deputy minister of finance, then minister of finance, and finally as minister of foreign affairs.

With the ayatollah’s blessing, Mr. Bani-Sadr’s easily won the presidential election of Jan. 25, 1980. The ayatollah, however, had secured approval of a constitution giving him power to dismiss presidents at will. Over the next 18 months, he directed Mr. Bani-Sadr’s rise and fall.

In his first weeks in power, Mr. Bani-Sadr worked to bring order to the shambles that had been left by the collapse of the shah’s government. However, he was quickly was distracted by the hostage crisis.

“The takeover of the U.S. embassy was wholly in line with Khomeini’s strategy of focusing hostility abroad,” he later wrote. “It was at this moment that the idea of a religious state became viable. He also realized that he could now silence people at will, by threatening them with the accusation of being pro-American.”

In the venomous political climate of post-revolution Tehran, enemies rose against Mr. Bani-Sadr. Several of his associates were convicted on trumped-up charges and executed. After war with Iraq broke out, militants criticized him for relying more on the regular army, which they associated with the shah’s monarchy, than on revolutionary guards and other political forces. In the summer and fall of 1980, he survived two helicopter crashes.

The combination of the hostage crisis and the war created a hyper-radical atmosphere in which a tweedy, mustachioed intellectual like Mr. Bani-Sadr could hardly hope to survive. On June 10, 1981, Ayatollah Khomeini removed him from his post as commander in chief. On June 21, parliament ruled him “politically incompetent” and voted to impeach him as president. Ayatollah Khomeini signed the bill the next day.

It accused Mr. Bani-Sadr of “opposing the Islamic Republic; forming an alliance with counterrevolutionary forces attached to the East and the West in order to eliminate the Islamic system; persistent opposition to the Islamic consultative assembly from the outset and even before its inauguration; open interference in the judiciary, incorrect understanding of the most basic tenets of the constitution, and disbelief in the separation of powers.”

By the time of his impeachment, Mr. Bani-Sadr had been in hiding for several days. Six weeks later, he slipped out of the country aboard an air force jet piloted by a sympathetic officer.

For much of his later life, Mr. Bani-Sadr lived with his wife and three children in or near Paris, including at a heavily guarded home in Versailles. He wrote and spoke about his homeland. When signing copies of his memoir, he often added the line, “Elected President of the People of Iran.”

In 1997, Mr. Bani-Sadr testified at a court hearing in Berlin about the assassination of an Iranian dissident there. The court later concluded that senior Iranian leaders had approved the assassination.

After Iranian security forces crushed protests in the wake of the disputed 2009 presidential election, Mr. Bani-Sadr accused the religious regime of “holding on to power solely by means of violence and terror.” He said it had lost both political and religious legitimacy.

“However much he was committed to Islam, he was opposed to a clerical state,” the historian Ervand Abrahamian said in an interview for this obituary. “His tragedy sums up the tragedy of lay intellectuals who thought they could harness religion to nationalism.”


Henüz yorum yapılmamış. İlk yorumu aşağıdaki form aracılığıyla siz yapabilirsiniz.

bahçe dekorasyonu evde ek gelir eskişehir haber sondakika haberleri magazin haberleri seo sorgulama site analiz seo analiz google sıra bulucu backlink sorgulama sunucu tarama çekiliş çekiliş sitesi Who is html kod şifreleme seo hacklink hacklink satış hacklink panel wordpress ücretsiz tema wordpress free themes wordpress free tema wordpress themes wordpress hacklink al kilo verme wso shell php shell hacklink hacklink panel hızlı seo hacklink seo nedir wso shell instagram takipçi hilesi instagram takipçi hilesi
bahçe dekorasyonu evde ek gelir eskişehir haber sondakika haberleri magazin haberleri seo sorgulama site analiz seo analiz google sıra bulucu backlink sorgulama sunucu tarama çekiliş çekiliş sitesi Who is html kod şifreleme seo hacklink hacklink satış hacklink panel wordpress ücretsiz tema wordpress free themes wordpress free tema wordpress themes wordpress hacklink al kilo verme wso shell php shell hacklink hacklink panel hızlı seo hacklink seo nedir wso shell
hacklink satışbacklink satışsite analizseo analizseo araclarıbacklinkcialis jelcialis fiyatlifta 20 mgviagra satın alviagra 100 mg fiyatviagra siparişcialis 5 mg fiyatsertleştirici haplarlifta hapkayganlaştırıcıbayan azdırıcıpenis büyütücülergeciktiricilerereksiyon haplarıpenis sertleştirici haplarpenis büyütme ürünlerisertleştirici ereksiyon haplarısancaktepe escorteskisehir escortalpu escortizmir escortankara escortmersin escorteskişehir escortgaziantep escortsakarya escortkayseri escortantalya escortistanbul escortbursa escortadana escortadıyamanescortafyon escortağrı escortaksaray escortartvin escortaydın escortamasya escortardahan escortbalıkesir escortbartın escortbatman escortbayburt escortbilecik escortbingöl escortbitlis escortbolu escortburdur escortçanakkale escortçankırı escortçorum escortdenizli escortdiyarbakır escortdüzce escortedirne escortelazığ escorterzincan escorterzurum escortgiresun escortgümüşhane escorthatay escortığdır escortısparta escortmaraş escortkarabük escortkars escortkastamonu escortkilis escortkırıkkale escortkırklareli escortkırşehir escortkocaeli escortkonya escortkütahya escortmalatya escortmanisa escortmardin escortmuğla escortmuş escortnevşehir escortniğde escortordu escortosmaniye escortrize escortsamsun escorturfa escortsiirt escortuşak escortsinop escortşırnak escortsivas escorttekirdağ escorttokat escorttrabzon escorttunceli escortvan escortyozgat escortyalova escortzonguldak escortkıbrıs escortpendik escortesenyurt escortzeytinburnu escortküçükçekmece escortbeşiktaş escorttuzla escortbeykoz escortfatih escortsancaktepe escortarnavutköy escortbağcılar escortümraniye escortbeyoğlu escortüsküdar escortesenler escortmecidiyeköy escortsarıyer escortetiler escortlevent escortbebek escortgaziosmanpaşa escortkartal escortbaşakşehir escortşişli escorthalkalı escortbahçelievler escortortaköy escorteyüp escortbahçeşehir escortkağıthane escorttaksim escortçekmeköy escortsultançiftliği escortşaşkınbakkal escortbayrampaşa escortbeylikdüzü escortkadıköy escortataşehir escortbakırköy escortmerter escortataköy escortnişantaşı escortkozyatağı escortavcılar escortbüyükçekmece escortkurtköy escortiçerenköy escortküçükyalı escortbostancı escortşirinevler escorterenköy escortadana escortadıyaman escortafyon escortağrı escortaksaray escortamasya escortankara escortantalya escortardahan escortartvin escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortbartın escortbatman escortbayburt escortbilecik escortbingöl escortbitlis escortbolu escortburdur escortbursa escortçanakkale escortçankırı escortçorum escortdenizli escortdiyarbakir escortdüzce escortedirne escortelazığ escorterzincan escorterzurum escorteskişehir escortantep escortgiresun escortgümüşhane escorthakkari escorthatay escortığdır escortistanbul escortizmir escortkarabük escortkaraman escortkars escortkastamonu escortkütahya escortkayseri escortkıbrıs escortkilis escortkırıkkale escortkırklareli escortkırşehir escortkocaeli escortkonya escortmalatya escortmanisa escortmaraş escortmardin escortmersin escortmuğla escortmuş escortnevşehir escortniğde escortordu escortosmaniye escortrize escortsakarya escortsamsun escortsiirt escortsinop escortçorlu escortçerkezköy escortsivas escortmanisa escortizmir escorthatay escorterzurum escortbalikesir escorturfa escorttrabzon escorttekirdag escortsamsun escortsakarya escortordu escortmugla escortmersin escortmardin escortmaras escortmalatya escortkonya escortkocaeli escortkayseri escorteskisehir escortdiyarbakir escortdenizli escortbursa escortaydin escortantep escortankara escortadana escortkuvvet macunusertleştirici macunyapay kızlık zarısertleştirici ilaçlarserleşme haplarısertleştirici ereksiyon ilaçlarıereksiyon haplarıvajina daraltıcı kremeczane ereksiyon ilaçlarıpenis sertleştiricihacklinkwordpress ücretsiz temahacklink seowso shellwso shellwso shellhtml code encryptionhtml kod şifrelemeinstagram takipçi hilesiçekiliş sitesiserver scansunucu taramasite speed testsite hız testiseo newsgoogle newssite analysisseo analysisbacklink saleshacklink panelwordpress themeswordpress free temaWordpress Free Themeshtml kod şifrelemeWho isbacklink alsunucu taramapubg hile alTanıtım Yazısıseoseo sorgulaseo sorgulamaBest Gaming Monitorswireless earbudsshapermint bra reviewsBest Dog Crateraycon reviewsbest stethoscopeinstagram beğeni hilesiinstagram unfollowinstagram takipci satın alinstagram Followers Freeinsagram Free Followerssmm panelsmm panelinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram Followersinstagram free likesinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram takipci hilesibomonti escortgültepe escortbursa escortnisantasi escorttaksim escortkurtkoy escort bayanpendik escort bayantatto girlsoyun indirmakale programımeme küçültmeinstagram takipçi hilesibacklink albacklink satıştempobet1xbetrotabetjojobetsekabetbetisttempobet1xbetmobilbahisperabetmarsbahissuperbetincratosslotpaykwikastropaytempobetbetbooelexbetsultanbetbaymavicasinomaxirestbetsafirbetsafirbettempobetbetebet canlikadın newskadına özelworld newssex hikayeizmir escortmersin escortataşehir escortataşehir escortbeşiktaş escortesenler escortesenyurt escortfatih escortkadıköy escortkartal escortmaltepe escortpendik escortsarıyer escortpendik escortmaltepe escortkartal escortkadıköy escorttaksim escortsilivri escortşişli escortbağcılar escortbursa escortantalya escortankara escortadana escortgaziantep escortseo analysisistanbul escortviagra satın alviagra fiyatıdegrawso shellpendik escortc99 shelladana escortcanlı bahisadana eskortnevşehir escortbedava bonus veren bahis siteleribedava bonusdeneme bonusu30 tl bonus veren bahis sitelerihoşgeldin bonususex hikayeleriTürkçe Bahis Şirketlericanlı bahiskaçak iddaabahisbahis sitelerihoşgeldin bonusu veren bahis siteleriporno hikayeleristanbul escortc99 shellr57 shellbypass shellwebroot shellpendik escortvigrandedegra 100 mgorcafilcialis nedircialis 20 mg eczane fiyatıcialis fiyatcialis 20 mgcialis 100 mgviagra fiyatliftalifta 5 mghardciscialis eczanecialis 5 mg fiyatıcialis 100 mg fiyatcialis 5 mgviagra fiyatlarıviagra satışonline eczane viagraviagra eczanecialis 20 mgcialis 100 mgcialis hapcialis 20cialis eczanecialis satışcialis fiyatlarıcialis fiyatıviagra fiyatviagra fiyatlarıviagra eczaneviagra satın alpfizer viagra satışonline eczane viagrapfizer viagra satın alviagra siparişviagra sipariş hattıviagra fiyat 2021online viagra siparişviagra fiyat 2021 eczaneviagra fiyat eczaneankara escortAnkara escort kızlarEscort ankaraankara escort bayanSincan escortSincan escort bayanEryaman escortEscort eryamanEscort sincanEtlik escortEtlik escort bayanKızılay escortantalya escortantalya escort bayanantalya escort bayanantalya escortankara escort bayanKeçiören escort bayanEscort ankaraKızılay escort bayanEryaman escort bayanEscort antalyaÇankaya escortEscort antalyaKeçiören EscortÇankaya escort bayanankara escortAnkara rus escortkartal escortcialis 5 mgkamagra satın alkamagrakamagra jelkamagra jel siparişkamagra siparişkamagra fiyatkamagra jel fiyatıkamagra fiyatıkamagra 100mgkamagra 100mg fiyatsüper kamagrakamagra nedirpendik escortkurtkoy escorttuzla escortkayseri escortmozrankGamelooplogsuz shell indirlitespeed bypass shellindoxploit shellphp shellgoogle sıra buluculitespeed bypass shellbacklink sorgulamaeryaman escortistanbul bayan escorthacklink satışbacklink satışhacklink panelhacklinkbingöl escorteskişehir escortkırklareli escortçekmeköy escortsultangazi escortbodrum escortkuşadası escortc99 shellc99 shelllifta 20 mgliftalifta 20lifta 20 mg nedirlifta nedirhacklink seokarşıyaka escortbuca escortalsancak escortkonak escortkuşadası escortbeylikdüzü escortbornova escortçeşme escortgöztepe escortçankaya escortankara escortankara escort bayanescort ankaraescort ankaraankara escort bayanankara escortankara escortankara escort bayanescort ankaraphp encodebase64 encodecialis fiyatcialis fiyatlarıcialis 20 mgcialiscialis 100 mgcialis 5 mgcialis satışviagra fiyatıPendik EscortTuzla EscortKartal EscortKurtkoy EscortMalatya EscortEryaman EscortÇankaya Escortkayseri escortadana escortamasya escortbartın escortbatman escortadıyaman escortbayburt escortartvin escortantalya escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortağrı escortafyon escortbilecik escortbingöl escortburdur escortbolu escortbursa escortçanakkale escortçorum escortdüzce escortedirne escortçankırı escortdiyarbakır escortdenizli escortelazığ escortgiresun escorthatay escortkaraman escortısparta escortmaraş escortkars escortkastamonu escortgümüşhane escorteskişehir escortkarabük escorterzincan escorterzurum escortkayseri escortkütahya escortkırıkkale escortkırklareli escortmardin escortkonya escortmuğla escortkocaeli escortmanisa escortmersin escortkırşehir escortmalatya escortmuş escortosmaniye escortnevşehir escortniğde escortsamsun escortordu escortrize escorturfa escortsakarya escortsinop escorttekirdağ escortyalova escortzonguldak escortyozgat escortsivas escorttunceli escorttrabzon escortuşak escorttokat escortvan escortşırnak escortsivas escortuşak escorttunceli escortkıbrıs escortkıbrıs escorttekirdağ escortyozgat escorttokat escortzonguldak escorttrabzon escortvan escortyalova escortantalya escortankara escortizleANKARA ESCORTviagra fiyatinstagram followers free